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Oesophagus :: Liver :: Pancreas :: Gall Bladder :: Spleen



The oesophagus is the muscular tube that leads from the mouth to the stomach. Swallowed food is massaged down the oesophagus and
passed through a weak ring of muscle (sphincter) into the stomach. Reflux occurs when the acidic contents of the stomach squeeze or
'slosh' back through the sphincter and enter the lower oesophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn (a burning sensation in the
lower chest) or regurgitation.

Below are a common topics related to oesophagus, click on the desired topics to find out more about them.

Reflux Disease :: Endoscopy :: Hiatus Hernia :: Achalasia

Fundoplication :: Oesophageal Varices :: Oesophageal cancer


The liver situated in the upper right part of the abdominal cavity, si the largest organ of the body, weighing 1200 -1600 g. The liver has a wide variety of functions, and the main functions are removal of harmful substances from blood and to produce bile to assist in digestion of food.

When the liver has broken down harmful substances, its by-products are excreted into the bile or blood. Bile by-products enter the intestine and ultimately leave the body in the form of faeces. Blood by-products are filtered out by the kidneys, and leave the body in the form of urine.

Below are a common topics related to Liver, click on the desired topics to find out more about them.

Hepatomegaly :: Hepatitis :: Liver Biopsy :: Liver Cancer

Gall Bladder

The gallbladder is a small sac that lies underneath of the liver. Its function is to store and concentrate the bile that is produced by the liver and to deliver it to the small intestine when we eat. The bile mixes with the food and aids in the absorption of fats and certain vitamins that are dissolved in the fats.

Below are a common topics related to gall bladder, click on the desired topics to find out more about them.

Gall Stones :: Laparoscopic :: Cholecystitis

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The pancreas is located in the abdomen, tucked behind the stomach.  The pancreas has dual roles; it is an organ of the digestive system and of the endocrine (hormonal) system. Once food has been mulched and partially digested by the stomach, it is pushed into the duodenum (first part of the small intestine). The pancreas adds its own digestive juices and enzymes to the food, via a small duct attached to the duodenum. This process is said to belong to the 'exocrine pancreas'. The pancreas also produces the hormone insulin, which helps to control the amount of sugar in the blood. This is the role of the 'endocrine pancreas'.

Below are a common topics related to pancreas, click on the desired topics to find out more about them.

Pancreatitis :: Pancreatic Cancer


The spleen is an organ involved in the production and maintenance of red blood cells, the production of certain circulating white blood cells, and is a part of the lymph system and the immune system. It also has a phagocytic role and acts as a filter for circulating microorganisms, old and deformed red cells, and other antigens.



The Appendix is a small, worm-shaped blind tube, about 7.5 cm long and 5–2.5 cm thick, projecting from the caecum (part of the large intestine) on the right side of the lower abdominal cavity. The structure, also called the vermiform appendix, has no function in peopleand is considered a vestigial remnant of some previous organ or structure, having a digestive function, that became unnecessary to people in their evolutionary progress

Below are a common topics related to Appendix, click on the desired topic to find out more about them.


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